In hunt of pushing pleasure: quattro expostulate and cessation of a Audi e-tron

Variable torque distribution: a electric all-wheel drive

With a electric all-wheel expostulate Audi eliminated a sum imagination from some-more than 4 decades of quattro expostulate into a electric age. The reward code sum a potency of a single- shaft expostulate with a pushing dynamics and traction of an all-wheel drive. This record also reached a new spin of variability, dynamics and precision.

The electric motors are a ideal energy source for a high-precision, ultrafast quattro expostulate in a Audi e-tron: The expostulate torque can be tranquil now and distributed entirely variably between both axles in fractions of a second – constantly tailored to a sold pushing situation. In and with a wheel-selective torque control, a electric all-wheel expostulate offers high traction in all continue conditions and on any surface. The energetic talents of the Audi e-tron are generally apparent during low coefficients of friction, such as on snow.

In many cases, a electric SUV tends to use a back electric engine to grasp a tip efficiency. For reasons of efficiency, a expostulate torque is generally distributed with a rear-axle bias. If a motorist final some-more energy than a back electric engine can supply, a electric all-wheel expostulate redistributes torque as compulsory to a front axle. This also happens predictively even before trip occurs in icy conditions or when cornering fast, or if a automobile understeers or oversteers. It takes usually 30 milliseconds or so from a complement detecting a pushing conditions and a torque from a electric motors kicking in – many faster than with compulsory quattro technology. The reason is that with a electric all-wheel expostulate a involuntary purchase is not intent though electricity is simply distributed. And that is roughly immediate with comprehensive precision. So even with remarkable changes in a coefficients of attrition and impassioned pushing situations a full quattro opening is guaranteed.

Intelligent connectivity: team-work between control units

Thanks to a many years of knowledge and quattro imagination Audi has grown all a categorical program components and their connectivity in-house. Numerous control units work together closely in a Audi e-tron and coordinate all functions for a powertrain.

First and inaugural is a expostulate control unit. It controls a placement of a expostulate torque between a dual electric motors, with a importance always on a best opening and, in turn, high efficiency. In further to a state of assign and a feverishness of a high-voltage battery and electric motors, a expostulate control section also takes into comment a comparison expostulate operation and a energy requirement. For instance in expostulate operation S with activation of a kickdown, a boost energy of 300 kW is expelled to broach limit performance. In suitability with a compulsory torque of a expostulate control unit, a energy wiring incorporated in a electric expostulate supply a electric motors with power.

The executive control section for a cessation is a electronic framework tallness (ECP). For a initial time, it integrates a pushing dynamics control of a quattro drive, i.e. a all-wheel controller, as good as a wheel-selective torque control. The control is many quicker and many some-more accurate interjection to this integration. In situations where doing dynamics are applicable such as understeer or oversteer, a electronic all-wheel controller overrides a specified torque placement of a expostulate control unit. From information such as steering angle, engine torque, cross and longitudinal acceleration it calculates a ideal torque placement for a sold pushing situation. If oversteer is imminent, some-more torque is sent to a front shaft to lift a Audi e-tron out of a bend. The motorist can so accelerate in a hook early into a subsequent true and needs to meddle rebate to make corrections. Tracking fortitude is enhanced. The all-wheel controller decides on a basement of any conditions possibly it adjusts a engine torque or increases a stop involvement – and does so divided on any axle. That contributes to a flexible doing of a Audi e-tron and creates for a sporty simple setup, quite in terms of cross dynamics. If there are signs of understeer with a sporty pushing style, in other disproportion a automobile moves opposite a front axle, a all-wheel controller activates a hydraulic circle brakes to discharge torque aside and directly controls a brakes individually. This wheel-selective torque control kindly brakes a wheels with reduced bucket on a inside of a curve, so augmenting a expostulate energy to a wheels on a outward of a hook with a aloft circle load. This disproportion turns a automobile into a bend, permitting a automobile to follow a steering angle. The upshot: precise, neutral doing assimilated with extended energetic cornering.

Innovative traction control in a Electronic Stabilization Control (ESC) also delivers high traction and automobile safety. Thanks to innovative networking and changeable of organic modules from a ESC to a energy electronics, a circle trip is now tranquil during millisecond intervals. As such, it can be practiced precisely to a pushing conditions and a highway aspect condition. The outcome is softened acceleration and extended fortitude on sleet and ice. In and with a all-wheel controller a new traction control delivers best hold between tire and highway surface. The expostulate control section coordinates a traction control and a all-wheel controller.

Wide-ranging character: Audi expostulate select

The Audi e-tron’s characteristics can be practiced around a customary Audi expostulate name energetic doing complement opposite 7 profiles – from sincerely comfortable, by extra-efficient, to admirably sporty – according to a pushing situation, highway condition or personal requirements. Apart from a auto, comfort and dynamic modes, a motorist can also name from a efficiency, individual, allroad and offroad programs. They henceforth change a steering assistance, a expostulate characteristics and a atmosphere adaptive cessation with tranquil damping. If a motorist selects a dynamic mode in Audi expostulate select, a expostulate operation S is active automatically and in spin also a boost mode. Here, a expostulate produces 300 kW and delivers 664 Nm (489.7 lb-ft) of torque. The efficiency mode moves a powertrain, a meridian control and a standard-fit journey control or a discretionary adaptive journey control to a some-more careful simple environment and so assists a motorist with a pushing character that optimizes fuel economy. In individual mode a motorist can configure a setup formed on their personal wishes. The motorist adjusts a settings of a compulsory expostulate mode around a symbol in a switch frame in front of or in a MMI.

Optimal traction for any situation: a Electronic Stabilization Control

The viewed response of a electric quattro expostulate is also altered in a 4 organic modes of a Electronic Stabilization Control (ESC). Apart from a customary ON mode a Audi e-tron also comes with a Sport and an Offroad mode as good as deactivation of a ESC. Depending on a driver’s preferences, a traction and doing fortitude can be practiced to several terrains. If a ESC has to act, a interventions are peaceful and probably imperceptible, assisted by a all-wheel controller.

In ESC ON a complement controls a wheels with a innovative traction control to furnish ideal circle slip, so accelerating a Audi e-tron safely and stably. Maximum energy send is provided. By selecting Sport mode, a motorist can deposit on surfaces with a low fellow of friction, such as snow, in a controlled, protected manner. By permitting some-more circle trip assimilated with high traction, a traction control provides larger pushing pleasure in this situation. In ESC Off mode, a probable circle trip is probably unrestricted. The Audi e-tron offers precisionist doing and start-off assistance: low trip control is still supposing in a low speed operation usually so a automobile can pierce off softened on ice, low sleet or sand.

Offroading is probable interjection to a offroad mode in Audi expostulate select, that during a same time activates a Offroad mode of a ESC. Here a Audi e-tron switches from expostulate operation D to S to call adult a limit torque of 664 Nm (489.7 lb-ft) and 300 kW of energy – an advantage on high inclines. The ESC optimizes a traction and stop control and somewhat reduces a fortitude control essentially in a reduce and middle speed range. For instance a outcome of a electronic differential close is augmenting to grasp best energy send and propulsive energy when pushing with lots of axial twist, i.e. where one circle probably has no load.

In addition, a ABS stop control is practiced to grasp aloft deceleration on silt or silt too. In both cases a electrohydraulically integrated stop control complement with a accurate and quick vigour buildup ensures best traction and brief braking distances.

The customary mountain skirmish control is activated in ESC Offroad mode. On high slopes over 6 percent, this duty provides support with involuntary braking input. The complement maintains a bound speed adult to a limit of 30 km/h (18.6 mph), that a motorist sets by accelerating or braking. This allows a motorist to combine entirely on a terrain.

Remarkably versatile: a adaptive atmosphere suspension

The Audi e-tron comes customary with adaptive atmosphere cessation with tranquil damping. This ensures a immeasurable disproportion between well-spoken rolling comfort and sporty, quick handling. As such, a electric SUV is good prepared for loose furloughed on a one hand, and for energetic pushing on circuitous roads on a other. The Offroad tallness also allows a motorist to try off a beaten track. The pneumatic springs adjust divided to a highway conditions depending on a speed and a driver’s preferences, varying a float tallness by as many as 76 millimeters (3.0 in) starting from a simple environment of 172 millimeters (6.8 in). It also offers a self-leveling duty for several bucket conditions.

The atmosphere cessation with check control is integrated into a electronic framework tallness and Audi expostulate name management. The executive framework control section divided controls a startle absorbers during any circle during millisecond intervals – according to a highway condition, pushing character and a mode selected by a motorist in a Audi expostulate name energetic doing system. In auto mode this is really balanced. With a comfort setting, a startle absorbers are tranquil so that they yield loose motoring even on bad roads.

If a motorist selects auto or comfort mode, a Audi e-tron is during normal float height. While a pneumatic open reduces a belligerent clearway on prolonged highway journeys in a comfort environment by 13 millimeters (0.5 in), a physique is lowered in automobile mode in dual stages by adult to 26 millimeters (1.0 in) – depending on a highway speed. In further to fortitude and handling, a operation also advantages from a reduce drag interjection to a softened airflow. In a dynamic and efficiency modes a Audi e-tron basically sits 13 millimeters (0.5 in) reduce than a customary float height. For potency reasons, a physique is also lowered from a certain speed so that a electric SUV reaches a lowest float tallness of 26 millimeters (1.0 in) next a customary setting.

When selecting a allroad or offroad mode, a electric SUV is primed for pushing divided from paved roads. Here a atmosphere cessation increases a belligerent clearway by 35 millimeters (1.4 in) above a customary float height. On severe turf a motorist can also activate a “Lift” function. Compared with offroad mode here a physique is another 15 millimeters (0.6 in) higher, i.e. an boost of 50 millimeters (2.0 in). In and with a front angle of proceed of 18.2 degrees and a back angle of proceed of 24.4 degrees with a Offroad setting, the Audi e-tron is good prepared to tackle peaceful off-road terrain. The ramp angle of a electric SUV is 16.8 degrees in this configuration.

Basis of a high cross dynamics: low core of sobriety and torsional rigidity

The Audi e-tron provides glorious cross dynamics in a full-size SUV shred and responds adroitly and stably in equal magnitude in any situation. This is interjection decisively to a low designation position of a powertrain components and a high-voltage battery. The core of sobriety of a Audi e-tron is on a customary with that of a sedan. The battery complement is optimally matched to a measure of a Audi e-tron and is located between a axles in a form of a flat, extended retard underneath a newcomer compartment. This executive position ensures high lively in multiple with a low core of gravity. Axle bucket placement is ideally offset during roughly 50:50.

The weight of a battery complement including a housing vessel with perplexing pile-up structures is roughly 700 kilograms (1,543.2 lb). It is bolted to a physique structure of a Audi e-tron at 35 points. Body and high-voltage battery act in unison, so ensuring a high spin of reserve and rigidity. Compared with a compulsory SUV, a torsional acerbity of a Audi e-tron has been augmenting by 45 percent – a wilful parameter for accurate doing and acoustic comfort. The newcomer cell done of hot-formed, ultrahigh-strength steel also plays an critical role. Steel accounts for 17 percent of a sum physique weight. Aluminum creates adult 40 percent of a weight, including all attachments such as doors, hood and tailgate along with a battery housing.

Sporty, accurate handling: suspensions, steering, wheels

The front and back suspensions of a electric SUV are five-link designs. This shaft component enables optimal fullness of cross and longitudinal forces. Its mounts are sportily firm in a cross instruction and movable and soothing longitudinally. All of that roughly improves comfort assimilated with extended pushing dynamics.

The customary on-going steering adjusts a generally directly configured ratio to a steering angle. It becomes some-more approach with augmenting steering angle, that provides doing advantages when maneuvering and in parsimonious curves. The automobile can be changed adroitly and precisely with small steering effort. The Audi e-tron steers into a hook casually though understeer and stays neutral for a prolonged time even during high speeds. Despite a customary electric SUV unladen weight of 2,490 kilograms (5,489.5 lb) a doing is intensely light-footed. Power assistance is augmenting during low speeds for easier maneuverability.

The Audi e-tron is propitious customary with aerodynamically optimized 19-inch wheels. Their pattern is agree than with compulsory wheels, so shortening a aerodynamic drag. The propitious 255/55 tires mount out with their low rolling insurgency though compromising doing or braking performance. As an option, Audi also reserve aerodynamically optimized 20-inch wheels with 255/50 stretch tires and 21-inch wheels with 265/45 stretch tires.

Powerful 18-inch brakes work on a vast wheels – with six-piston bound calipers during a front and single-piston floating calipers during a rear.

Optionally they mount out brightly with their e-tron-specific finish in a high-voltage vigilance tone orange. At a front a internally ventilated discs have a hole of 375 millimeters (14.8 in) and 350 millimeters (13.8 in) during a rear. The new electrohydraulic actuation allows a stop control complement to build adult stop vigour for a circle brakes with good pointing and roughly twice as quick as a compulsory system. When programmed puncture braking is performed, there are usually 150 milliseconds – ever so somewhat some-more than a blink of a eye – between a arising of a stop focus and a participation of limit stop vigour between a pads and discs. Thanks to this quick vigour buildup, a electrohydraulically integrated stop control complement shortens a braking stretch by adult to 20 percent compared with a compulsory stop system.

Powerful performance: electric motors and thermal management

Apart from a state-of-the-art cessation components and their intelligent control, a absolute electric motors in sold are a critical component in a glorious pushing pleasure. The electric motors have an outlay of 265 kW and rise 561 Nm (413.8 lb-ft) of torque. They can broach this rise opening for adult to 60 seconds. The automobile can so accelerate from a delay to a electronically singular tip speed of 200 km/h (124.3 mph) several times running though outlay losses. The Audi e-tron sprints from 0 to 100 km/h (62.1 mph) in 6.6 seconds. The limit expostulate torque is accessible within fractions of a second and provides huge pulling power. By changeable from expostulate operation D to S and entirely joyless a right-hand pedal, a motorist can activate boost mode. It is accessible for 8 seconds. Here, a expostulate produces 300 kW of complement outlay and 664 Nm (489.7 lb-ft) of torque. The Audi e-tron accelerates from a delay to 100 km/h (62.1 mph) in 5.7 seconds with this setup.

The worldly thermal government plays a essential purpose in a opening of a electric motors. It allows a opening to be reproduced even if a powertrain components are subjected to high loads. For a patron that means shining pushing dynamics during all times. The thermal government cools a electric motors together with their rotors, a energy wiring and a charger. The rotors, that strech adult to 13,300 revolutions per notation during genuine automobile operation, embody of magnetically conductive electrical sheets and lightweight, high-purity aluminum. Coolant flows by a inside of a shafts to safeguard that a feverishness does not surpass 180 degrees Celsius.

The stators and finish shields of a electric motors are also water-cooled. The gearboxes mounted on a finish shields advantage indirectly from this solution. Effective cooling acted new hurdles for a developers, quite with a coaxially organised electric engine during a back axle. The resolution is to supply a coolant around a double-wall siren and a ceramic sign on a electric engine rotor. 22 liters (5.8 US gal) of coolant disseminate around a 40 meters (131.2 ft) of cooling pipes in a Audi e-tron.

Being a hottest components in a powertrain, a electric motors yield a thermal government complement with a vast apportion of heat. The standard-fit feverishness siphon uses any rubbish feverishness to feverishness adult or cold a interior. Depending on a outward temperature, that can boost a Audi e-tron’s range by adult to 10 percent in patron operation. Efficiency and opening compound ideally in a Audi e-tron and yield a basement for a pushing knowledge of a new record era.

Successful in competition and volume production: a quattro expostulate and a history

quattro expostulate revolutionized Audi and continues to impersonate a code with a 4 rings. It was innate in a winter of 1976/77 during exam drives in a low snows of Sweden. Audi engineers grown a quattro complement as all-wheel expostulate for sporty cars. The Ur-quattro, a initial Audi prolongation indication with quattro drive, debuted in 1980. A year after it assimilated a convene circuit, notching adult countless victories along a way. Audi won a manufacturer’s universe championship in 1982, with Finn Hannu Mikkola holding a driver’s pretension in a convene universe championship in 1983. In a same year Audi denounced a Sport quattro, 24 centimeters (9.4 in) shorter with a far-reaching track, building 225 kW (306 hp) – a many absolute road- going automobile offering by a German automaker adult to that point. The indication supposing a basement for a new organisation B convene automobile in that Swede Stig Blomqvist took a driver’s championship and Audi a manufacturer’s universe championship in 1984. Equally memorable is Walter Röhrl’s feat on a mythological Pikes Peak (USA) competition in 1987. With a 598 hp Audi Sport quattro S1 (E2) he set a new record. In 10 mins and 47.85 seconds he cowed a roughly 20-kilometer-long (12.4 mi) march with 156 bends and a disproportion in altitude of 1,439 meters (4,721.1 ft).

Audi has invariably polished a quattro record over a decades – from a manually locking core differential to several forms of self-locking core differentials. The developers are constantly optimizing these systems for dynamics and traction. The classical quattro record is now accessible in all indication lines, though there are unpractical differences between them. The quattro expostulate in a models formed on a modular cross pattern uses a hydraulically actuated, electronically tranquil multi-plate purchase on a back axle. In the Audi R8, a multi-plate purchase is commissioned on a front axle. Depending on a engine/ delivery variant, models formed on a modular longitudinal tallness have possibly quattro expostulate with a self-locking core differential or quattro with ultra technology. This optimized all-wheel expostulate complement is quite fit given it engages usually when required. Despite this, a expostulate complement exhibits no obvious differences from permanent systems in terms of traction and pushing dynamics. In a Audi e-tron, a code with a 4 rings introduced a new era of quattro expostulate as customary in 2018: electric all-wheel drive. It ensures a continual and entirely non-static law of a ideal placement of expostulate torque between a dual axles – within a fragment of a second. In and with a wheel-selective torque control, that drives a hydraulic circle brakes divided with a sporty pushing style, a electric SUV offers best traction in all continue conditions and on any surface.

In 2020, some 45 percent of all Audi business worldwide chose a quattro drive. No fewer than 16 array constructed by a code with a 4 rings are accessible with a quattro expostulate and 10 of them are constructed in Germany. Audi has built 11,199,144 cars with a quattro expostulate given 1980 (as of: Dec 31, 2020).


Technology Lexicon Driving dynamics

Electric all-wheel drive

The electric all-wheel expostulate combines a potency of a single-axle expostulate with a pushing dynamics and traction of an all-wheel drive. It ensures a continual and entirely non-static law of a ideal placement of expostulate torque between a dual axles. It takes just 30 milliseconds or so from a complement detecting a pushing conditions and a torque from a electric motors kicking in – many faster than with compulsory quattro technology. The reason is that with a electric all-wheel expostulate a involuntary purchase is not intent though electricity is simply distributed. And that takes usually a fragment of a second. So even with remarkable changes in a coefficients of attrition and impassioned pushing situations a full quattro opening is guaranteed.

In many cases, a electric SUV tends to use a back electric engine to grasp a tip efficiency. For reasons of efficiency, a expostulate torque is generally distributed with a rear-axle bias. If a motorist final some-more energy than a back electric engine can supply, a electric all-wheel expostulate redistributes torque as compulsory to a front axle. This also happens predictively even before trip occurs in icy conditions or when cornering fast, or if a automobile understeers or oversteers. In and with a wheel-selective torque control, a electric all-wheel expostulate offers high traction in all continue conditions and on any surface.

Electronic framework platform

The electronic framework tallness (ECP) is a executive control section for a suspension. Apart from a transformation of a automobile, including speed, hurl and pitching movements, it also annals a fellow of attrition of a highway surface, a stream pushing conditions, such as understeer or oversteer, as good as a information from a concerned cessation systems. From these, it quick calculates and precisely coordinates a optimal duty of these components in a integrated doing controller. Whether cornering behavior, cross dynamics or float comfort – a advantages of a networked control complement can be felt everywhere. In a Audi e-tron the ECP acts on a adaptive atmosphere suspension, a pushing dynamics control of a electric all-wheel expostulate and a wheel-selective torque control.

Wheel-selective torque control

Whether electric or involuntary all-wheel drive, possibly front-wheel expostulate – a wheel- resourceful torque control rounds off a doing with electronic interventions. On all models with all-wheel drive, i.e. including a Audi e-tron, a circle brakes decelerate minimally a wheels with rebate bucket on a inside of a hook with a sporty pushing style, so augmenting a expostulate torque to a wheels on a outward of a hook with a aloft circle load. The disproportion in expostulate army turns a automobile into a bend, permitting a automobile to follow a steering angle precisely.

The result: precise, flexible and neutral handling. On a models with front-wheel drive, a wheel-selective torque control acts on a front circle during a inside of a curve.

In a Audi e-tron the wheel-selective torque control is not integrated into a Electronic Stabilization Control, though into a electronic framework tallness and, in turn, forms partial of a all-wheel control for a initial time. As a outcome both systems can be optimally concurrent and further any other mutually.

Speed-controlled traction control

The Audi e-tron features innovative traction control, that roughly increases traction and doing stability. The Electronic Stabilization Control (ESC) and a energy wiring have been networked in a new approach formed on a engine speed. By changeable duty modules to a energy wiring a circle trip is tranquil during millisecond intervals – 50 times faster than before. This enables a trip to be practiced to a pushing conditions many some-more precisely and becomes conspicuous to a motorist quite in multiple with a four-stage duty modes of a ESC – ON, OFF, Sport and Offroad. In and with a electronic differential close of a ESC and a all-wheel controller, a new traction control provides best energy send between tires and highway surface. The outcome is a high spin of traction and fortitude underneath all conditions that is a hallmark of Audi.

Power electronics

The high-voltage battery delivers approach current; a electric motors use three-phase current, that is because any electric engine is connected to a energy wiring procedure that translates a electricity. With a volume of 5.5 liters (0.2 cu ft) and weighing 8 kilograms (17.6 lb), a energy wiring modules of a Audi e-tron are really compact. Both embody a microcontroller for determining a electric engine and are integrated into a thermal government complement for a electrical units. They are intensely dynamic, reading sensor information 10,000 times per second and outputting stream values for a electric motors.

Electrohydraulically integrated stop control system

With a electrohydraulically integrated stop control system, Audi is presenting a universe premiere in a array prolongation automobile with an electric drive. The circle brakes are actuated hydraulically, a bolster is actuated electrically, and a activation is actuated electronically. The control section detects with how many force a motorist is stepping on a stop pedal and calculates how many braking torque is indispensable within milliseconds. If a recuperation torque is not sufficient, hydraulic vigour for a compulsory attrition stop is generated in addition. Put into suit by an electric shaft drive, a banishment piston pushes a stop liquid into a stop lines. The transition from generator operation of a electric motors to a pristine attrition stop is smooth, and a motorist does not notice it.

A second piston generates a informed pedal feeling for a driver’s feet by means of a pressure-resistant element. Thanks to this stop pedal simulator, a motorist is not influenced by what is duty in a hydraulics. In a box of ABS braking, vigour buildup and rebate are not conspicuous in a pedal in a form of vitriolic tough pulsations.

In dangerous situations, a electrohydraulically integrated stop control complement builds adult a stop vigour around twice as quick as a compulsory stop system. Maximum stop vigour is so benefaction after usually 150 milliseconds. This is hardly some-more than a blink of a eye and creates impressively brief braking distances.

Audi expostulate select

With a Audi expostulate name energetic doing system, a motorist can knowledge opposite setups in his or her Audi. Selecting one of a auto, comfort, energetic or efficiency modes changes a characteristics of critical driveline and cessation components from comfort- oriented, by extremely energetic to rarely fuel-efficient. In individual mode a motorist can configure a setup formed on his or her personal wishes. The Audi e-tron also facilities a allroad and offroad modes that primary a electric SUV in multiple with adaptive atmosphere cessation for pushing off-road. In offroad mode a Electronic Stabilization Control, a expostulate control section and a all-wheel expostulate are practiced for best offroad capability.

adaptive atmosphere suspension

adaptive atmosphere cessation – an atmosphere cessation complement with tranquil damping – offers the Audi e-tron a far-reaching operation between well-spoken cruising and sporty handling. It adjusts divided to a highway conditions depending on a speed and a driver’s preferences, varying a float tallness by as many as 76 millimeters (3.0 in). The executive framework control unit, a electronic framework platform, divided controls a operation of a startle absorbers during any circle during cycles on a sequence of milliseconds – according to a highway condition, pushing character and a mode set in a Audi expostulate name energetic doing system. The atmosphere cessation also offers a self-leveling duty for several bucket conditions.

Progressive steering

With a electromechanical on-going steering a specifically geared shelve varies a ratio depending on a steering angle. The ratio becomes smaller and a steering some-more approach with augmenting steering angle. Less steering transformation is compulsory in civic trade and when maneuvering; a automobile is even some-more flexible on parsimonious bends. The on-going steering also adjusts a energy assistance to a highway speed. It is augmenting during low speeds for easier maneuverability.

Peak performance

Peak opening refers to a tip outlay of a electric motors, that can be delivered for adult to 60 seconds, several times consecutively, and though outlay losses. The rise outlay of a front electric engine is 125 kW, with a torque of 247 Nm (182.2 lb-ft). With a back engine a rise outlay is 140 kW and 314 Nm (231.6 lb-ft).

Boost performance

An asynchronous engine can be overloaded for a brief period. The boost is accessible for a limit of 8 seconds; during this time, a outlay of a front electric engine increases from 125 to 135 kW, while that of a back engine increases from 140 to 165 kW. This constitutes an altogether boost of 13 percent to 300 kW in total. The torque is also augmenting extremely by usually over 18 percent, from 561 (413.8 lb-ft) to 664 Nm (489.7 lb-ft).